Lawful Basis for Processing
At a glance
- You must have a valid lawful basis in order to process personal data.
- There are six available lawful bases for processing. No single basis is ’better’ or more important than the others – which basis is most appropriate to use will depend on your purpose and relationship with the individual.
- Most lawful bases require that processing is ‘necessary’ for a specific purpose. If you can reasonably achieve the same purpose without the processing, you won’t have a lawful basis.
- You must determine your lawful basis before you begin processing, and you should document it. We have an interactive tool to help you.
- Take care to get it right first time - you should not swap to a different lawful basis at a later date without good reason. In particular, you cannot usually swap from consent to a different basis.
- Your privacy notice should include your lawful basis for processing as well as the purposes of the processing.
- If your purposes change, you may be able to continue processing under the original lawful basis if your new purpose is compatible with your initial purpose (unless your original lawful basis was consent).
- If you are processing special category data you need to identify both a lawful basis for general processing and an additional condition for processing this type of data.
- If you are processing criminal conviction data or data about offences you need to identify both a lawful basis for general processing and an additional condition for processing this type of data.
☐ We have reviewed the purposes of our processing activities, and selected the most appropriate lawful basis (or bases) for each activity.
☐ We have checked that the processing is necessary for the relevant purpose, and are satisfied that there is no other reasonable and less-intrusive way to achieve that purpose.
☐ We have documented our decision on which lawful basis applies to help us demonstrate compliance.
☐ We have included information about both the purposes of the processing and the lawful basis for the processing in our privacy notice.
☐ Where we process special category data, we have also identified a condition for processing special category data, and have documented this.
☐ Where we process criminal offence data, we have also identified a condition for processing this data, and have documented this.
What are the lawful bases for processing?
The lawful bases for processing are set out in Article 6 of the GDPR. At least one of these must apply whenever you process personal data:
(a) Consent: the individual has given clear consent for you to process their personal data for a specific purpose.
(b) Contract: the processing is necessary for a contract you have with the individual, or because they have asked you to take specific steps before entering into a contract.
(c) Legal obligation: the processing is necessary for you to comply with the law (not including contractual obligations).
(d) Vital interests: the processing is necessary to protect someone’s life.
(e) Public task: the processing is necessary for you to perform a task in the public interest or for your official functions, and the task or function has a clear basis in law.
(f) Legitimate interests: the processing is necessary for your legitimate interests or the legitimate interests of a third party, unless there is a good reason to protect the individual’s personal data which overrides those legitimate interests. (This cannot apply if you are a public authority processing data to perform your official tasks.)
When is processing 'necessary'?
Many of the lawful bases for processing depend on the processing being “necessary”. This does not mean that processing has to be absolutely essential. However, it must be more than just useful, and more than just standard practice. It must be a targeted and proportionate way of achieving a specific purpose. The lawful basis will not apply if you can reasonably achieve the purpose by some other less intrusive means, or by processing less data.
It is not enough to argue that processing is necessary because you have chosen to operate your business in a particular way. The question is whether the processing is objectively necessary for the stated purpose, not whether it is a necessary part of your chosen methods.
Why is the lawful basis for processing important?
The first principle requires that you process all personal data lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner. If no lawful basis applies to your processing, your processing will be unlawful and in breach of the first principle.
Individuals also have the right to erase personal data which has been processed unlawfully.
The individual’s right to be informed under Article 13 and 14 requires you to provide people with information about your lawful basis for processing. This means you need to include these details in your privacy notice.
The lawful basis for your processing can also affect which rights are available to individuals. For example, some rights will not apply:
However, an individual always has the right to object to processing for the purposes of direct marketing, whatever lawful basis applies.
The remaining rights are not always absolute, and there are other rights which may be affected in other ways. For example, your lawful basis may affect how provisions relating to automated decisions and profiling apply, and if you are relying on legitimate interests you need more detail in your privacy notice.
Please read the section of this Guide on individuals’ rights for full details.
How do we decide which lawful basis applies?
This depends on your specific purposes and the context of the processing. You should think about why you want to process the data, and consider which lawful basis best fits the circumstances. You can use our interactive guidance tool to help you.
You might consider that more than one basis applies, in which case you should identify and document all of them from the start.
You must not adopt a one-size-fits-all approach. No one basis should be seen as always better, safer or more important than the others, and there is no hierarchy in the order of the list in the GDPR.
Several of the lawful bases relate to a particular specified purpose – a legal obligation, performing a contract with the individual, protecting someone’s vital interests, or performing your public tasks. If you are processing for these purposes then the appropriate lawful basis may well be obvious, so it is helpful to consider these first.
In other cases you are likely to have a choice between using legitimate interests or consent. You need to give some thought to the wider context, including:
- Who does the processing benefit?
- Would individuals expect this processing to take place?
- What is your relationship with the individual?
- Are you in a position of power over them?
- What is the impact of the processing on the individual?
- Are they vulnerable?
- Are some of the individuals concerned likely to object?
- Are you able to stop the processing at any time on request?
You may prefer to consider legitimate interests as your lawful basis if you wish to keep control over the processing and take responsibility for demonstrating that it is in line with people’s reasonable expectations and wouldn’t have an unwarranted impact on them. On the other hand, if you prefer to give individuals full control over and responsibility for their data (including the ability to change their mind as to whether it can continue to be processed), you may want to consider relying on individuals’ consent.
Can we change our lawful basis?
You must determine your lawful basis before starting to process personal data. It’s important to get this right first time. If you find at a later date that your chosen basis was actually inappropriate, it will be difficult to simply swap to a different one. Even if a different basis could have applied from the start, retrospectively switching lawful basis is likely to be inherently unfair to the individual and lead to breaches of accountability and transparency requirements.
A company decided to process on the basis of consent, and obtained consent from individuals. An individual subsequently decided to withdraw their consent to the processing of their data, as is their right. However, the company wanted to keep processing the data so decided to continue the processing on the basis of legitimate interests.
Even if it could have originally relied on legitimate interests, the company cannot do so at a later date – it cannot switch basis when it realised that the original chosen basis was inappropriate (in this case, because it did not want to offer the individual genuine ongoing control). It should have made clear to the individual from the start that it was processing on the basis of legitimate interests. Leading the individual to believe they had a choice is inherently unfair if that choice will be irrelevant. The company must therefore stop processing when the individual withdraws consent.
It is therefore important to thoroughly assess upfront which basis is appropriate and document this. It may be possible that more than one basis applies to the processing because you have more than one purpose, and if this is the case then you should make this clear from the start.
If there is a genuine change in circumstances or you have a new and unanticipated purpose which means there is a good reason to review your lawful basis and make a change, you need to inform the individual and document the change.
What happens if we have a new purpose?
If your purposes change over time or you have a new purpose which you did not originally anticipate, you may not need a new lawful basis as long as your new purpose is compatible with the original purpose.
However, the GDPR specifically says this does not apply to processing based on consent. Consent must always be specific and informed. You need to either get fresh consent which specifically covers the new purpose, or find a different basis for the new purpose. If you do get specific consent for the new purpose, you do not need to show it is compatible.
In other cases, in order to assess whether the new purpose is compatible with the original purpose you should take into account:
- any link between your initial purpose and the new purpose;
- the context in which you collected the data – in particular, your relationship with the individual and what they would reasonably expect;
- the nature of the personal data – eg is it special category data or criminal offence data;
- the possible consequences for individuals of the new processing; and
- whether there are appropriate safeguards - eg encryption or pseudonymisation.
This list is not exhaustive and what you need to look at depends on the particular circumstances.
As a general rule, if the new purpose is very different from the original purpose, would be unexpected, or would have an unjustified impact on the individual, it is unlikely to be compatible with your original purpose for collecting the data. You need to identify and document a new lawful basis to process the data for that new purpose.
The GDPR specifically says that further processing for the following purposes should be considered to be compatible lawful processing operations:
- archiving purposes in the public interest;
- scientific research purposes; and
- statistical purposes.
There is a link here to the ‘purpose limitation’ principle in Article 5, which states that “personal data shall be collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes”.
Even if the processing for a new purpose is lawful, you will also need to consider whether it is fair and transparent, and give individuals information about the new purpose.
How should we document our lawful basis?
The principle of accountability requires you to be able to demonstrate that you are complying with the GDPR, and have appropriate policies and processes. This means that you need to be able to show that you have properly considered which lawful basis applies to each processing purpose and can justify your decision.
You need therefore to keep a record of which basis you are relying on for each processing purpose, and a justification for why you believe it applies. There is no standard form for this, as long as you ensure that what you record is sufficient to demonstrate that a lawful basis applies. This will help you comply with accountability obligations, and will also help you when writing your privacy notices.
It is your responsibility to ensure that you can demonstrate which lawful basis applies to the particular processing purpose.
Read the accountability section of this guide for more on this topic. There is also further guidance on documenting consent or legitimate interests assessments in the relevant pages of the guide.
What do we need to tell people?
You need to include information about your lawful basis (or bases, if more than one applies) in your privacy notice. Under the transparency provisions of the GDPR, the information you need to give people includes:
- your intended purposes for processing the personal data; and
- the lawful basis for the processing.
This applies whether you collect the personal data directly from the individual or you collect their data from another source.
Read the ‘right to be informed’ section of this guide for more on the transparency requirements of the GDPR.
What about special category data?
If you are processing special category data, you need to identify both a lawful basis for processing and a special category condition for processing in compliance with Article 9. You should document both your lawful basis for processing and your special category condition so that you can demonstrate compliance and accountability.
What about criminal offence data?
If you are processing data about criminal convictions, criminal offences or related security measures, you need both a lawful basis for processing, and either ‘official authority’ or a separate condition for processing this data in compliance with Article 10. You should document both your lawful basis for processing and your criminal offence data condition so that you can demonstrate compliance and accountability.
Special Category Data
- Special category data is personal data that needs more protection because it is sensitive.
- In order to lawfully process special category data, you must identify both a lawful basis under Article 6 of the GDPR and a separate condition for processing under Article 9. These do not have to be linked.
- There are 10 conditions for processing special category data in Article 9 of the GDPR.
- Five of these require you to meet additional conditions and safeguards set out in UK law, in Schedule 1 of the DPA 2018.
- You must determine your condition for processing special category data before you begin this processing under the GDPR, and you should document it.
- In many cases you also need an ‘appropriate policy document’ in place in order to meet a UK Schedule 1 condition for processing in the DPA 2018.
- You need to complete a data protection impact assessment (DPIA) for any type of processing which is likely to be high risk. You must therefore be aware of the risks of processing the special category data.
☐ We have checked the processing of the special category data is necessary for the purpose we have identified and are satisfied there is no other reasonable and less intrusive way to achieve that purpose.
☐ We have identified an Article 6 lawful basis for processing the special category data.
☐ We have identified an appropriate Article 9 condition for processing the special category data.
☐ Where required, we have also identified an appropriate DPA 2018 Schedule 1 condition.
☐ We have documented which special categories of data we are processing.
☐ Where required, we have an appropriate policy document in place.
☐ We have considered whether we need to do a DPIA.
☐ We include specific information about our processing of special category data in our privacy information for individuals.
☐ If we use special category data for automated decision making (including profiling), we have checked we comply with Article 22.
☐ We have considered whether the risks associated with our use of special category data affect our other obligations around data minimisation, security, and appointing Data Protection Officers (DPOs) and representatives.
What is special category data?
The GDPR defines special category data as:
* personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin;
* personal data revealing political opinions;
* personal data revealing religious or philosophical beliefs;
* personal data revealing trade union membership;
* genetic data;
* biometric data (where used for identification purposes);
* data concerning health;
* data concerning a person’s sex life; and
* data concerning a person’s sexual orientation.
This does not include personal data about criminal allegations, proceedings or convictions, as separate rules apply. For further information, please see our separate guidance on criminal offence data.
Special category data includes personal data revealing or concerning the above types of data. Therefore, if you have inferred or guessed details about someone which fall into one of the above categories, this data may count as special category data. It depends on how certain that inference is, and whether you are deliberately drawing that inference.
What are the rules for special category data?
You must always ensure that your processing is generally lawful, fair and transparent and complies with all the other principles and requirements of the GDPR. To ensure that your processing is lawful, you need to identify an Article 6 basis for processing.
In addition, you can only process special category data if you can meet one of the specific conditions in Article 9 of the GDPR. You need to consider the purposes of your processing and identify which of these conditions are relevant.
Five of the conditions for processing are provided solely in Article 9 of the GDPR. The other five require authorisation or a basis in UK law, which means you need to meet additional conditions set out in the DPA 2018.
You must also identify whether you need an ‘appropriate policy document’ under the DPA 2018. Our template appropriate policy document shows the kind of information this should contain.
You must do a DPIA for any type of processing that is likely to be high risk. This means that you are more likely to need to do a DPIA for processing special category data. For further information, please see our guidance on DPIAs.
If you process special category data you must keep records, including documenting the categories of data. You may also need to consider how the risks associated with special category data affect your other obligations – in particular, obligations around data minimisation, security, transparency, DPOs and rights related to automated decision-making.
What are the conditions for processing special category data?
Article 9 lists the conditions for processing special category data:
(a) Explicit consent
(b) Employment, social security and social protection (if authorised by law)
(c) Vital interests
(d) Not-for-profit bodies
(e) Made public by the data subject
(f) Legal claims or judicial acts
(g) Reasons of substantial public interest (with a basis in law)
(h) Health or social care (with a basis in law)
(i) Public health (with a basis in law)
(j) Archiving, research and statistics (with a basis in law)
If you are relying on conditions (b), (h), (i) or (j), you also need to meet the associated condition in UK law, set out in Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the DPA 2018.
If you are relying on the substantial public interest condition in Article 9(2)(g), you also need to meet one of 23 specific substantial public interest conditions set out in Part 2 of Schedule 1 of the DPA 2018.
What are the substantial public interest conditions?
The 23 substantial public interest conditions are set out in paragraphs 6 to 28 of Schedule 1 of the DPA 2018:
6. Statutory and government purposes
7. Administration of justice and parliamentary purposes
8. Equality of opportunity or treatment
9. Racial and ethnic diversity at senior levels
10. Preventing or detecting unlawful acts
11. Protecting the public
12. Regulatory requirements
13. Journalism, academia, art and literature
14. Preventing fraud
15. Suspicion of terrorist financing or money laundering
16. Support for individuals with a particular disability or medical condition
18. Safeguarding of children and individuals at risk
19. Safeguarding of economic well-being of certain individuals
21. Occupational pensions
22. Political parties
23. Elected representatives responding to requests
24. Disclosure to elected representatives
25. Informing elected representatives about prisoners
26. Publication of legal judgments
27. Anti-doping in sport
28. Standards of behaviour in sport
You should identify which of these conditions appears to most closely reflect your purpose. Our detailed guidance gives you some further advice on how the conditions generally work, but you always need to refer to the detailed provisions of each condition in the legislation itself to make sure you can demonstrate it applies.
For some of these conditions, the substantial public interest element is built in. For others, you need to be able to demonstrate that your specific processing is “necessary for reasons of substantial public interest”, on a case-by-case basis.
The public interest covers a wide range of values and principles relating to the public good, or what is in the best interests of society. It needs to be real and of substance. Given the inherent risks of special category data, it is not enough to make a vague or generic public interest argument. You should be able to make specific arguments about the concrete wider benefits of your processing.
For some of the conditions, you also need to justify why you cannot give individuals a choice and get explicit consent for your processing. In most cases, you must have an ‘appropriate policy document’ in place.